The climates of both European and Asian Russia are continental except for the tundra and the extreme southeast.
Winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia, while summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast.
Major lakes include Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga, and Lake Onega.
Russia has major deposits of petroleum, natural gas, coal, timber and many strategic minerals.
Permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development.
There is volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands, volcanoes and earthquakes on the Kamchatka Peninsula, and spring floods and summer/autumn forest fires throughout Siberia and parts of European Russia.
The more central Ural Mountains, a north-south range that form the primary divide between Europe and Asia, are also notable.
The lowest point is the Caspian Sea, at 28 meters below sea level.
Major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin.
A small part of Black Sea coast around Sochi is considered in Russia to have subtropical climate.
Russia has thousands of rivers and inland bodies of water, providing it with one of the world's largest surface-water resources.
The Russian Federation emerged as a great power in the early twenty-first century, also considered to be an energy superpower.
The country is considered the Soviet Union's successor state in diplomatic matters, and is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.