Proline accumulation appears to be mediated by both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signalling pathways, although the events that occur between the perception of stress and the induction of proline biosynthetic genes are poorly characterized.Recent evidence supports an important role for post-transcriptional events in dehydration- and ABA-induced proline synthesis.Using pheochromocytoma (an adrenal medulla cancer) as example, this short essay provides a broad overview of the scientific and clinical possibilities offered by xenograft models for understanding resistance mechanisms to particular chemotherapeutic regimens, and upon identification of the putative mutations, confirms their functional roles as either oncogenes or tumour suppressors.
Each of the multitude of newly generated B cells produces a different antibody with a unique antigen-binding sequence, which collectively form the primary antibody repertoire of an individual.
Ig H and Ig L chains associate to form the B-cell receptor (BCR), which, upon antigen binding, activates B cells to secrete BCR as an antibody.
Each of the huge number of clonally independent B cells expresses a unique set of Ig H and Ig L variable regions.
Nevertheless, formulating effective personalized treatment via surveying the mutational landscape remains difficult, due to current deficiencies in predicting drug sensitivity from genotype.
Xenografts, both indirect (via cell line) and direct (from primary tumours), are good physiologic models of cancers.